New designers tend to remove a great deal of copper from their boards. The problem with this approach is that without copper present in equal amounts on mirror-layers of the circuit board that constrain the expansion of the dielectric layers equally, the printed circuit board […]
Every fabrication shop has a list of design rules that they provide to customers that detail the limitations of the manufacturing process. The specific numbers used will depend on the fabrication shop that you use as well as whether you are using their recommended process […]
Whenever you route a signal trace, you need to pay attention to the return path for that trace — return signals take the path of least impedance, not the path of least resistance. Ideally, every digital signal line and power rail will have an uninterrupted […]
FR-4 is commonly used to describe the dielectric material that makes up PCBs. That’s a problem since FR-4 stands for Flame Retardant level 4, and hundreds of possible laminates meet that specification “FR-4” only describes the way the material behaves when exposed to flame. Mark […]
What is a Stackup? PCBs are made of alternating layers of conductors and insulators (dielectrics). Multi-layer PCBs are either made by laminating two or more premade cores together, or by starting with a core and laminating foil on the outside to build up the outer […]
Every integrated circuit, passive component, wire, and connector is cleaned with an acid called flux and attached to printed circuit boards with a carefully engineered combination of metals called solder. As the temperature of a pure substance, such as water, increases, it will undergo phase […]
Most PCB manufacturers are in the southern parts of China near Shenzhen. There are a great many factories in this area and workers are in high demand, so factories will often bring in employees from the far corners of the country to fill positions. During […]
Hackers stay up at night to get better at their job, which is breaking device security on your latest electronic design. Electrical engineers and computer scientists need a similar work-ethic to harden their assemblies against bad-actors. Over the next two posts we will cover embedded […]
When it comes to creating printed circuit boards, engineers often guestimate various aspects of their design. One such design metric is known colloquially as Trace and Space. Trace refers to the width of a particular copper track, and Space refers to the width of the gap between […]
Incorrectly attaching the power supply leads to a design can instantly ruin countless hours of hard work. Learn how to use Diodes in your designs to keep mistakes from ruining your PCBs!
Sculptured Flex technology is a modification of the basic flexible printed circuit board technology, wherebyunsupported copper traces protrude beyond the edge of the board and act as replacement for the male pins of a connector. The copper traces are of variable thickness, being thicker and sturdier in areas […]
A circuit operating at high frequencies exhibits opposition or impedance to flow of electric current from the combination of resistance, inductance, and capacitance present in it, when an alternating voltage is impressed across the circuit. This impedance is made up of a complex sum of […]
When designing PCBs, engineers usually assign a model number, a version number, and the version release date. Not only does this help identify a particular PCB for a specific product, the numbering system also helps with traceability as required by ISO and IPC standards. PCB […]
Why is Pulse Plating Better? Manufacturers have traditionally used acid copper for direct current electroplating of copper tracks, vias, and through-holes on their Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) with copper. Although direct current electroplating offers high leveling and bright covering power, this method suffers from poor […]
Curing ovens are an integral part of any Printed Circuit Board (PCB) manufacturing and assembly industry. The market offers a huge range of standard and custom-made ovens for composite curing, both in-line and bench-top types. Typically, these ovens provide a unilateral flow of air that […]
Royal Circuit Solutions, Inc.
21 Hamilton Ct.
Hollister, CA 95023
Royal Flex Circuits, Inc.
Rigid-Flex and Flex Division
15505 Cornet St.
Santa Fe Springs, CA 90680
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